Apes custodus - this Latin term is derived from a latin term used for bee - Apis melifica
Central Slovakia mining region - this region rich in ores and minerals was the vitally important "treasury" and economic centre of the former Hungarian Empire. Its most crucial centres were "Golden" Kremnica, "Silver" Banska Stiavnica and "Copper" Banska Bystrica. To highlight the importance of this region for the Medieval Europe we have to mention the fact (as it is believed) that the Columbus ships were sheathed with Banska Bystrica copper. Apparently it must be true as the town's ore dominated the European copper market.
Cerveny Klastor (Red Monastery) - lies in a village of identical name (Pieniny NP). Monastery was founded by the Carthusian Order at the beginning of the 14th century. 4 centuries later, it came to hands of the Camaldule Brothers and developed into an important Slovak cultural centre. On top of that, one of the earliest medical centres specializing in cultivating medicinal herbs was set up there at the same time.
Jelsava - town of regional importance in the River Muran valley, central Slovakia. Its history goes back to 1243, when castle and mining settlement are being mentioned in contemporary manuscripts.Royal charter was granted to Jel?ava in the middle of the 15th century. In the Middle Ages, town thrived on its gold, copper and iron mining industry. Later on, during the 18th and 19th centuries it became a significant artisan centre, boasting its prosperity with deposits of both magnesite and talc discovered at the end of the 19th century.
Detva - town situated in the River Slatina valley, central Slovakia.Originally a village settlement dating back to 1636-1638. Market rights were granted to Detva in 1811. Forestry and farming were chief sources of employment at that time.Historical Detva is characterized by spendid examples of folk architecture and still surviving folk traditions. Special features include dominant typical regional folk costumes, quite rare hook needle embroidery, carved decorated wooden crosses, and most importantly a unique musical instrument similar to a long flute called 'Fujara."
Easter whippers - this term represents mainly village boys and men armed with special festive willow whips, walking around their villages and symbolically watering and whipping village girls in general but special attention is given to their sweethearts.
German colonization - after the barbaric Tartar invasion in the 13th century, Slovak territory suffered a great population shortage.Therefore, Hungarian rulers were "inviting" settlers from other regions of Europe (especially Germany) while main emphasis was placed on their skilfulness and "practicality." These colonists significantly advanced contemporary mining, art (Gothic style), trade, etc. As German settlers were highly priviliged "cast," they were at times a source of national tension between majority Slovak community and themselves. Alltogether, however, we can say that this co-existence of fairly different "cultures" was mutually beneficial. Nowadays, of course, German settlers have been naturally mixed together with the Slovaks, but the traces of their influence are still well visible.
halusky - very popular common simpledish, mainly to be found on village tables rather than on rich aristocracy ones.Using only staple foodstuffs like potatoes, flour, cabbage or cheese it made excellent substantial lunches and dinners.Halu?ky are actually small pieces of dough, comparable with Italian gnocchi, boiled in salty water and mixed together with various toppings. Pronunced "halushci."
Hungarian rulers - majority of languages including English do not distinguish between the name Hungary (Madarsko) used for a country inhabited by Hungarian nation and the name Hungary (Uhorsko)-an official name for a multinational country in Central Europe between 11th and 19th centuries, spreading across nowadays Hungary, Slovakia, Rumania, Croatia and part of Ukraine. Later on it became a part of Austrian-Hungarian Empire.
Liptov region - picturesque mountainous region of Northern Slovakia regarded many as the most scenic part of the whole country. It is formed by a single hollow surrounded by the highest Slovak mountain ranges. One of the bastions of typical folk customs and traditions. Well preserved wooden folk architecture both in situ ( Vlkolinec Unesco Site) and in a Liptov village open-air museum (Pribilina). An independent administration unit (zupa) since the Middle Ages.Important recreational zone with Liptovska Mara Dam in its centre and the plethora of skiing resorts (Jasna).
Modra - well-known winemaking town, near Bratislava, on the boundaries of the Panonian Lowland and the Little Carpathy mountain range.Wine has been on the "agenda" since the 14th century when the town was granted its first royal charter privilages. This art gave a boost to further crafts typically linked to wine production such as ceramics, pottery and encouraged trade. nowadays famous for its traditional wine cellars and the Little Carpathian Vintage Fair, intermittently organized with Pezinok and Raca.
Orava region - another breathtaking part of Northern Slovakia, formed by the hilly terrain in the centre, no distict hollow can be found, surrounded by a rim of higher mouintains notoriously famous for its extremely harsh winters. Dominant feature of this region is the Orava Castle, highly perched above the Orava River. Predominantly one of the most impoverished regions of the whole country. Other landmarks: Orava Dam, Zuberec open-air museum, Oblazy Mill (gorge location), skiing resorts, perfect area for cycling, walking and horse riding ( historically well-known for cross boundary horse smuggling).
Podpolanie region - region around the Polana Massif Biospheric Reserve (extinct volcano with a crater 10 km in diameter; 1458m above sea level), central Slovakia. Famous for its folk traditions depicted in numerous works of Slovak poets, artists. Beautiful nature, ideal conditions for walking, skiing, cycling, nature exploring. Peculiar scattered form of settlement (quite rare in Slovakia).
Pohronie region - area not historically recognized as an independent region but being linked together by a slew of distictive features. Situated in the River Hron valley in Central Slovakia. Very mountainuous in the upper river part bearing an independent geographical name Horehronie. Banska Bystrica is its main natural centre. Densely forested region with many of the highest quality forest stands including remnants of virgin primeval forests now preserved under a special law (Dobroc P.M., Badin P. M.). Great facilities for hunting, canoeing, skiing, cycling, hiking. Another bastion of traditional folk culture, chiefly typical folk customs.
Rizna - in the past quite common method of wood skidding in mountaineous regions, using long wooden channels called rizne and the power of water. Some of these simple technological wonders, still functional, have been preserved to date to demonstrate the cleverness and common sense of our forefathers. One is being maintain near Harmanec (central Slovakia), where a narrow passage below the railway line hampers efforts to construct a conventional skidding road.
Salas - salas buildings, tightly linked to shepherding tradition, represent an important part of Slovak folk architecture. In principle, they were meant as temporary mountain shelters, but there were great efforts to turn permanent or at least to use them as long as possible. The main object, serving to accomodate shepherds, is called koliba (in style very similar to cabin). Further common outbuildings include:
St Benedict Monastery -this monastery is situated in so called Slovak Gate which lies on a main dividing line between southern lowlands and the Carpathian Mountains. It is actually a main entry to the River Hron Valley. Historically, the monastery played an important strategical role and the village settled comfortably in the valley beneath the monastery hill takes its name from this dominant feature of the surrounding countryside. Hronsky Benadik is its Slovak proper name.
Spis - a very mountainous region from the west enclosed by our highest mountain range called the High Tatras. Famous for its abundant historical landmarks (Spis Castle and Levoca Unesco Sites, Kezmarok and many other outstanding places of interest), natural beauties (Slovak Paradise NP). Strong German colonization influence in the past, reflected in traditional folklore and customs still alive in some parts.
Turiec - another of the scenic Slovak regions also called 'Turcianska garden" for being tightly enveloped by surrounding mountains. It is formed by a wide fertile hollow allowing agriculture to develop even in its fairly difficult hilly conditions. Its centre is Martin, formerly St Martin, the main base of Slovak national cultural movement in the 19th century.
Turkish occupation -.........majority of Hungary was occupied by warfare Turkish hordes, Budapest used to be the site of passa( high rank official ) and almost entire Hungarian social life moved up north to present Slovakia.
Wallachians (Slovak name Valasi) - originally the name of nation coming to our region from nowadays Rumania (partially Turkish invasion refugees) who brought along a special approach to shepherding, mainly above the tree line.Later on, Wallachians merged with native Slovak inhabitants and the term wallachians was introduced, being used generally for any shepherd.
Zvolen - important district town nestling comfortably at the confluence of the Hron and Slatina rivers, central Slovakia. Area perpetually settled since earlier Stone Age, first written evidence mentioning local castle (Pusty hrad) comes from 1135.Town rights were granted in 1235, later (14th century) to be followed by royal charter. In the 19th century it became the centre of national enlightment movements ( Ludovit Stur, one of teh most influencial contemporary Slovak nationalists, acted as Zvolen MP to Hungarian Assembly in 1848).Important centre of national resistance during Slovak National Uprising (1944-1945). Important industrial developments starting back in the 19th century ( railway hub, heavy industry, manufacturing).