MAJOR CUMMULATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL PRESSURES

Content


THE  OZONE LAYER DEPLETION

Slovak Republic as a successor of the Vienna Convention on the ozone layer protection (of 1985) and the Montreal Protocol on ozone layer depleting substances (of 1987), on May 28, 1993 Slovakia aligned itself to the global effort of the Earth‘s ozone layer protection. Further stringent measures to alleviate the impact of the ozone layer depletion were adopted at negotiations between the parties to the Montreal Protocol in London (1990) in Copenhagen (1992), in Vienna (1995), in Montreal (1997), and in Beijing (1999).

Pursuant to the regulations of the Montreal Protocol and changes to London and Copenhagen Amendment, the consumption of controlled chemicals of group I Annex A of the Protocol (chlorofluoric full-halogenated carbohydrates), of group II annex A of the Protocol (halons), group I annex B of the Protocol (other chlorofluoric full-halogenated carbohydrates), group II annex B of the Protocol (tetrachlormethane), of group III annex B of the Protocol (1,1,1- trichlorethane) in the Slovak Republic since January 1, 1996 should be zero. Used may be only stored chemicals that are recycled and regenerated. These substances may be used only to laboratory and analytical purposes. Pursuant to the Montreal Protocol Amendments adopted in Copenhagen in 1992 and subsequently revised in Vienna in 1995, since 1996 the production and consumption of substances under group I, annex C of the Protocol (non-full-halogenated chlorofluoride carbohydrates) is regulated with the intention of fully stopping their production by 2020. The next following 10 years these substances may be produced and consumed only for service purposes at the amount of 0.5% of the calculated level of the initial year of 1989. The consumption of methylbromide from the E I group as regulated by the Montreal Amendment in 1997, should by 1999 be reduced by 25%, by 2001 by 50%, by 2003 by 70%, and by 2005 it should cease completely. The reference year is the year 1991. Since January 1, 1996, the production and consumption of substances under group II annex C of the Protocol (non-full-halogenated bromfluoride carbohydrates) has been banned.

Slovak Republic fulfils the basic commitments stemming from the Montreal Protocol as amended. Of the permitted consumption of substances under C I group (58.15 ODP tonnes), the real consumption in 2000 was only 5.7%. On April 7, 1998 the Copenhagen Amendment to the Montreal Protocol came into effect in the Slovak Republic. This binds us to regulate the consumption of methylbromide. The permitted consumption level in 1991 was 10 tonnes. However, in 1999 Slovakia did not import any amount of methylbromide for this purpose. On February 1, 2000, Slovak Republic adopted for itself the Amendment to the Montreal Protocol, which binds us to ban the import and export of all controlled substances, including methylbromide, from and to all non-signatory countries, as well as to introduce licensing system for the import and export of controlled substances. In 2000, there was adopted Act No. 408/2000 Coll. of Laws, which amends and updates Act No. 76/1998 Coll. on the Protection of the Ozone Layer of the Earth and Act No. 455/1991 Coll. on Small Business (Small Business Act) as amended, which regulated the majority of responsibilities stemming from the EU Parliament Regulation No. 2 037/2000 and banned the production and consumption of bromchlormethane, creating conditions to ratify the Beijing Amendment to the Montreal Protocol.

Consumption of substances under control in the Slovak Republic in 1993-2000

Group of substances 1986/89

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

 

Initial consum-ption (t)

Consum-ption (t)

Consum-ption (t)

Consum-ption (t)

Consum-ption (t)

Consum-ption (t)

Consum-ption (t)

Consum-ption (t)

Consum-ption (t)

Consum-ption (t)

AI - freons

1,710.5

609.6

986.9

229.4

379.2

1.211)

2.051)

1.711

1.691)

2.07

A II - halons

8.1

2.5

2.0

0.0

0.0

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

BI* - freons

0.1

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

B II* - CCl4

91.0

251.8

250.0

315.4

0.6

0.00

0.161)

0.07

0.08

0.022

BIII* - 1,1,1 trichlorethane

200.1

107.3

180.0

136.7

69.4

0.00

0.111)

0.00

0.00

0.00

C I*

49.7

         

37.2

61.00

59.90

90.48

44.92

64.73

C II - HBFC22B1          

14.30

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

E** - Hbr

10.0

       

9.60

5.60

10.20

0.00

0.00

Total

2,019.5

971.2

1,419.0

717.5

449.2

86.10

61.81

102.50

46.69

66.82

Source: MŽP SR
* 1989 – starting year
** 1991 – starting year
1) consumption of A.I., B.II. and B.III substances in the years 1996,1997 and 1998 represents import of these substances on analytical and laboratory purposes in accordance with the general exception to the Montreal Protocol
Note 1: In 1996, besides the above-mentioned substances, 250 tonnes of recycled tetrachloromethane and 20 tonnes of regenerated freon CFC12 were imported. However, amount of these substances is not calculated towards total consumption as given by valid methodology. Data concerning consumption of C.I., C.II. and E substances from the previous years is not available.
Note 2: In 1997, besides the above-mentioned substances, 40 tonnes of used freon CFC12 were imported. Following the methodology valid, this amount is not calculated towards consumption.. 2.16 tonnes of methylbromide were also imported for the purposes of medicine and drug production and were received by Slovakofarma Pharmaceutical Comp. This amount is not calculated towards total consumption. as given by valid methodology.
Note 3: In 1998, besides the above-mentioned substances, 8.975 tonnes of regenerated coolant R 12 were imported, belonging to the A.I.. group. This amount is not calculated towards total consumption. as given by valid methodology of the Montreal Protocol.
Note 4: In 1999, besides the above-mentioned substances, 1.8 tonnes of used CFC 12 were imported. This amount is not calculated into the consumption as given by valid methodology. There was also imported 1.04 g tonne of methylbromide for Slovakofarma as a material for the production of medicine and drugs, and these are neither part of the consumption according to the valid methodology.

The annual mean of total atmospheric ozone in 2000 was 320 Dobson Units, which represents 5.5% below the long-term average calculated from the measurements in Hradec Kralove in 1962-1990, used as the long-term reference value for our area. After 1995, this represents the second lowest annual average value since the beginning of measurements in Gánovce.

Long-term mean was exceeded only in December, other months showed negative average deviations. In terms of their impact on biosphere, the most significant are negative deviations in March through June and August, since during these months the sun is high on the zenith and the travelling distance of solar rays through the ozone layer is short. The Earth‘s surface is exposed to the highest amounts of the ultraviolet radiation that are, because of deficit in total ozone layer, still more increased. Over the last years there has been recorded over our territory a decrease in total ozone amounts since the end of the winter season until the end of spring or the beginning of summer, which was confirmed substantially in 2000. June, just like in the previous year, was the month with the greatest negative deviation. The ozone layer in June was reduced on average by 10%. In April and May there was missing over our territory 9% of total atmospheric ozone. These current negative deviations are as big as those in 1995, with reduction continuing at the same intensity as late as July. This year‘s July showed the ozone amount reduced just by 3% compared to the long-term average. February and October showed relatively big negative deviations. The October deviation (-6%) is rather exceptional, since the autumn months in our area are typical for the greatest ozone layer stability.

Total atmospheric ozone level over the territory of Slovakia (2000)

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Source: SHMÚ


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