In accordance with the NCSR (National Council of the Slovak Republic) Act No.287/1994 Coll. on Nature and Landscape Protection, the system of complex nature and landscape protection has been designed based on five levels of protection .

I. level of protection  - the territory of the SR not included in any of the higher levels of protection
II. level of protection - Protected Landscape Area (PLA)
III. level of protection - National Park (NP)
IV. level of protection - Protected Site (PS)
V. level of protection - Nature Reserve (NR)
- Nature Monument (NM)
- National Nature Reserve (NNR)
- National Nature Monument (NNM)

In 1997, 56 protected area proposals were elaborated and 15 new NR with total area of 3 214 ha, 5 NM with total area 86 ha and 3 PS with total area of 129 ha were designated. With regard to large-scale protected areas 2 new national parks were designated, namely NP Muránska planina Plateau with a total area of 20 318 ha (former PLA) and NP Poloniny with the total area 29 805 ha (formerly part of PLA Východné Karpaty). The act on their designation came into effect on October 1st, 1997.
Furthermore, 3 protected sites were withdrawn from the list of protected areas of Slovakia.

Table 39 Categories of Protected Areas in the SR (as of December 31st ,1997)



Area of protected territory (ha) 

Area of protective zone (ha) 

Protected Landscape Area  15 598 585 


National Park 7 243 219 238 124
Protected Site 174 4 397.7447 2 263.2476
Nature Reserve  347 13 885.4380 318.4179
National Nature Reserve 229  82 121.8907 3 162.2489
Nature Monument  214 1 377.0270 232.6567
National Nature Monument 45 55.3181 26.6225


 Within the 4th and 5th levels of protection, 270 protected areas with a total area of 19 805 ha are located within designated PLA boundaries, 192 protected areas with a total area 63 691 ha are located within designated NP boundaries and their protective zones. 547 protected areas lie outside designated PLA, NP and their protective zones. Protected areas belonging to the 4th and 5th levels of protection statistics based on 3 categories according to the level of potential danger are listed in the following table.

Table 40 The Categories of Protected Areas as of December 31st, 1997

Category Number Area *


Optimal Thretened Degraded
Number Area Number Area Number Area
NNR 229 82 122 150 69 147 77 12 952 2 23
NR 347 13 885 181 9 921 161 3 905 5 59
PS 177 4 398 47 1 334 96 2 092 31 972
NNM 45 55 30 22 15 33 -
NM  214 1 377 118 938 93 421 3 18


*area excluding protective zone

Figure 28 Protected Areas of the SR
  Source: MŽ

Category Optimal Protected Area referers to all protected areas where subject of protection is not threatened by human activities and develops according to protection objectives. Category Threatened Protected Area refers to all protected areas where subject of protection is being negatively affected by human activities to such extent that without regulation measures its existence is threatened.
Category Degraded Protected Area refers to all protected areas where changes, respectively destruction of natural ecosystem were caused either by human activities or evolution.

From the total number of 1 009 small-size protected areas:

The most serious situation is in the group Protected Site where:

In the group Nature Reserve 46.39% (28.13% of the total area) fall into category Threatened. In the group Nature Monument 43.35% (30.59 of the total area) fall into category Threatened. Protected Tree group includes 463 trees growing outside forest and their clumps.
Nature protection bodies have so far elaborated 24 inventory reasearch theses and 8 specific protection regime plans which form base for practical protection measures.